Once a permanent resident has been in Canada for 4 years, they may apply for Citizenship and a Canadian passport. During 2015, the federal government announced that this will be decreased to 3 years. The 2005 and 2009 study material is not valid for the examination as it was replaced by the 2012 study material. However, all three have good background about Canada. Our advice is that applicants that is in the process of immigrating to Canada, should read at least 2 sets of study material as it provides excellent background about Canada.